According to its working principle, SPD can be divided into voltage switch type, voltage limiting type and combination type.
The voltage switching type SPD. When there is no transient overvoltage, high impedance is presented. Once the lightning transient overvoltage is responded to, the impedance will abrupt to low impedance, allowing the lightning current to pass through, also known as the "short circuit switch type SPD".
The voltage limiting type SPD. When there is no transient overvoltage, it is high impedance, but with the increase of surge current and voltage, its impedance will decrease continuously. Its current and voltage characteristics are strongly nonlinear, sometimes called "clamp pressure SPD".
Combination type SPD. A combination of voltage switching components and voltage limiting components can be shown as voltage switching or voltage limiting or both. This depends on the characteristics of the added voltage.
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